Arrays in JavaScript represent a list of values. The values can be any valid data type in JavaScript. Here is an example of array with elements, that are of different data types.

[23, "Backbencher", true, 89.65]


Array Literal

Array Literal is a list of zero or more expressions, each of which represents an array element, wrapped in square brackets([]).

["Apple", 23, true, {}]

Skip elements

While creating an array literal, elements can be skipped using commas. The skipped locations are filled by undefined.

const arr = [2,,,3];
console.log(arr); // [2, undefined, undefined, 3]

Trailing comma

Trailing comma in an array is ignored. It does NOT create an undefined element at the last.

const arr = [2, 4, 6,];
console.log(arr); // [2, 4, 6]

Trailing commas can create errors in older browsers. So it is better not to use it.

In order to improve the readability of code, explicitly put undefined in place of skipped elements.


What is the length of following array?


Array Declaration

There are multiple ways in which we can declare an array in JavaScript.

Square Brackets([])

An array in JavaScript can be declared using square brackets([]). All the list items are wrapped inside a pair of square bracket.

const arr = [2, 4, 6];

Empty array

An array without any element is called an empty array. An empty array is declared using an empty pair of square bracket.

const arr = [];

Array() Constructor

An array in JavaScript can also be declared using Array() constructor. The arguments passed as input to the constructor forms the array elements.

const arr = new Array("Apple", "Orange");
console.log(arr); // ["Apple", "Orange"];

Single number argument

When we pass a single number as argument to Array(), it treats the number as array length.

const arr = new Array(2);
console.log(arr.length); // 2
console.log(arr); // [undefined, undefined]

Here line 3 prints an array with 2 elements. Note that it did not create an array [2], with number 2 as its element.

If the single argument passed to the Array() constructor is a non-number, that argument is taken as an array element.

const arr = new Array("Backbencher");
console.log(arr); // ["Backbencher"]

Empty array

An empty array is created using Array() constructor by not passing any arguments.

const arr = new Array();
console.log(arr); // []

Array() Function

Array() is an overloaded function in JavaScript. It works both as a function and constructor. All things which can be done using Array() constructor can be implemented using Array() function.

const arr = Array("Apple", "Orange");
console.log(arr); // ["Apple", "Orange"];

Single number argument

When we pass a single number as argument to Array() function, it treats the number as array length.

const arr = Array(2);
console.log(arr.length); // 2
console.log(arr); // [undefined, undefined]

Empty array

An empty array is created using Array() function by not passing any arguments.

const arr = Array();
console.log(arr); // []

Array.of() ES6

Array.of() creates a new array from passed arguments.

const arr = Array.of("Apple", "Banana");
console.log(arr); // ["Apple", "Banana"]

Difference between Array()

When passed a single number argument to Array(), it creates an empty array of length equal to the passed number. Where as, when passed a single number argument to Array.of(), it creates an array with only that number as its element.

console.log(Array(3)); //[undefined, undefined, undefined]
console.log(Array.of(3)); // [3]

Read Array Elements

All elements in an array is stored as a list of items with numeric indices. The index starts from 0. An element of the array can be read by passing the index of the element.

const arr = ["Mercedes", "BMW", "Audi"];
console.log(arr[0]);  // "Mercedes"

Read non-existent element

When tried to read a non-existent element from an array, it returns undefined.

const arr = ["Mercedes", "BMW", "Audi"];
console.log(arr[1000]); // undefined

Index as string

Arrays are internally stored as objects. More details on that is given later. It is possible to read an element from array by passing the index as type string.

const arr = ["Mercedes", "BMW", "Audi"];
console.log(arr["1"]);  // "BMW"

Set Array Elements

Array elements can be set by initializing at the time of declaration itself. The square bracket([]) syntax or Array() syntax can be used for that.

const arr1 = ["Apple", "Banana"];
const arr2 = new Array("Apple", "Banana");
const arr3 = Array("Apple", "Banana");

All the above 3 techniques are valid in JavaScript.

Once an array is declared, the elements in the array can be set using square brackets and element index.

const arr = [];
arr[0] = "Apple";
arr[1] = "Banana";
console.log(arr); // ["Apple", "Banana"]

When an element is set in an array, the array automatically ensures that the length of the array is one greater than the largest index.

const arr = [];
arr[1] = "Second";
arr[5] = "Sixth";
console.log(arr.length); // 6

Memory Allocation

Normally in a programming language, arrays allocate a contigous block of memory with fixed length. But in JavaScript, arrays are just Object types with special constructor and methods. So internally, JavaScript engine cannot go with contigous memory approach for arrays. It treats an array like an object(hash) internally.

Dynamic nature of arrays

JavaScript approach of handling arrays as objects is required to handle dynamic nature of arrays. In JavaScript, we can keep on adding elements to an existing array using push() method.

const arr = [];
console.log(arr); // ["Backbencher", "JavaScript"]

Different data types in JavaScript like Boolean, Number, String and so on, occupy different memory sizes. In JavaScript, it is possible to update an element of an array to different data type.

const arr = ["Backbencher", "JavaScript"];
arr[1] = 72;
console.log(arr); // ["Backbencher", 72]

Here, the second element of the array is changed from a string type to number type. If arrays are storing elements in contigous memory locations, then we need to shift elements in memory when the data type changes. But since arrays are internally treated as objects, it is easy to make data type changes in an array.

Array declaration

When declaring an array using Array() constructor function, we can specify the size of the array.

const arr = new Array(1000);

When JavaScript engine executes above line of code, is it allocating 1000 memory locations? No. JavaScript cannot do that because it does not know what type of values are going to be in the array. JavaScript is actually creating an Array object and setting the length property of that object to 1000.

Every array(instance of Array()) has a property length which indicates the size of the array.

One of the easy way to delete all elements of an array is to set the length property of the array to 0.

Sparse arrays

Arrays in JavaScript are sparse. That means, we can create an array with non-contigous elements.

const arr = [];
arr[1] = "First element";
arr[5] = "Second element";

When JavaScript engine executes above code, it creates an array object with two keys, 1 and 5 and corresponding values are stored. Sparse array approach in JavaScript saves memory usage, since it allocates memory only for elements that have data.

What if we try to print the value of arr[3]? It prints undefined. That is not because JavaScript is filling all gaps with undefined. It is because JavaScript is designed to return undefined when we access a non-existent property of an object.

In the above code snippet, when we assign a value to index 5, JavaScript automatically sets the value of arr.length to 6. That means, JavaScript always sets the length property value greater than the largest index value of the array.

Array() Function

Array() is a function in JavaScript. It is a built-in function, that means the definition of the function is already written inside JavaScript engine.

console.log(typeof Array); // "function"

Using Array()

Array() is an overloaded function in JavaScript. That means, we can use Array() function in multiple ways.

Array() as constructor

Array() function can be used as a constructor function. That means, we can use Array() function with new operator to create different array objects.

const arr = new Array("Apple", "Orange");
console.log(arr); // ["Apple", "Orange"]

Array() as normal function

We can also create array objects simply by calling Array() function without new keyword.

const arr = Array("Apple", "Orange");
console.log(arr); // ["Apple", "Orange"]

Array Properties

A function in JavaScript is also an object. Every object in JavaScript has properties. Since Array() is also a function, it has properties. There are 6 own properties for Array() function. These are static properties. So, in order to use these properties or methods, we do not have to create an instance of Array() function.


As per ECMAScript specification, the value of this property is set to 1.

console.log(Array.length); // 1

Any function in JavaScript has a property name, which returns the name of the function.

console.log(; // "Array"

That is straight forward. The name of the Array() function is "Array".


Array.prototype stores an object. This object has all properties and methods which will be inherited by all array instances in JavaScript.

When we create an array like ["Apple", "Banana"], whatever properties and methods present for that array object comes from Array.prototype object. If we need to add a new method to be inherited by all arrays, we just have to add it as a method to Array.prototype object.

We are covering all properties and methods of Array.prototype later.


isArray() method returns true, if the argument passed to it is an array. If the argument is not an array, isArray() returns false. This is one of the way in which we can find if a value or variable is an array or not.

console.log(Array.isArray([2, 4, 6]));  // true
console.log(Array.isArray("[2, 4, 6]"));  // false


Array.from() creates a new, shallow-copied array from an array-like or iterable object.

Arrays are a type of object. Therefore, copying an array results in copying by reference.

const arr = ["Apple", "Banana"];
const arr2 = arr;
arr2[1] = "Kiwi";
console.log(arr[1]); // "Kiwi"

We changed the value of arr2, but it also updated the second element of arr1. That is because in line 2, only the reference of arr is copied to arr2. So, both arr2 and arr points to same array. If we actually want to copy the elements of arr to arr2, use Array.from().

const arr = ["Apple", "Banana"];
const arr2 = Array.from(arr);
arr2[1] = "Kiwi";
console.log(arr[1]); // "Banana"
What is shallow copy?

Shallow means not deep. Say, our source array contains nested array.

const source = ["A", "B", ["C", "D"]];

Here source is pointing to an array. Also, the third element of source(source[2]) is pointing to another array ["C", "D"]. Let us copy the source array to another destination array using Array.from().

const destination = Array.from(source);

Now destination is not pointing towards source array. Instead now the shallow(first level) elements of source, ie "A", "B" and memory reference of ["C", "D"] are copied to a new location where destination is pointing to. Note that the location of nested array ["C", "D"] is not changing. The third element of source and destination still points to the original ["C", "D"]. This is shallow copy. Let us see it in action.

const source = ["A", "B", ["C", "D"]];
const destination = Array.from(source);
destination[2][0] = "Apple";
console.log(source); // ["A", "B", ["Apple", "D"]]

We can see that the source array is also updated.

Using Array.from()

Array.from() accepts 3 arguments.

  1. ArrayLike object which will be converted to an array. This argument is mandatory.
  2. Map Function which is called with each elements of the array like object. This argument is optional.
  3. this specifies the value of this inside Array.from()
With one argument

Array.from() accepts an array or any array-like objects like Map or Set and returns a new array.

const set = new Set(['Apple', 'Banana']);
console.log(Array.from(set)); // ["Apple", "Banana"]
With two arguments

Each elements of the input object is passed to the map function one by one. Array.from() returns an array with each elements created using the return value of the map function.

const mapFunction = (element) => {
  return 0;

const set = new Set(['Apple', 'Banana']);
console.log(Array.from(set, mapFunction)); // [0, 0]

Irrespective of the input, the map function always return 0. That is why the result is an array with 2 zeros.

With three arguments

Third argument passed to Array.from() acts as the this value inside the map function(second argument).

const mapFunction = function (element) {
  return 0;

const customThis = { name: "Backbencher" };

const set = new Set(['Apple', 'Banana']);
console.log(Array.from(set, mapFunction, customThis)); // [0, 0]

And the output is:

[object Object] {
  name: "Backbencher"
[object Object] {
  name: "Backbencher"
[0, 0]

If the third argument is not there, this will have value of global object.Arrow functions do not respect this. That is why mapFunction is written in ES5 way.


As discussed earlier, Array.of() creates and returns a new array from the arguments passed to the method.

Array Instance Methods

The Array() constructor function has got a property called prototype. Array.prototype stores an object value. Any method of this prototype object is inherited by all instances of Array(). Example, if Array.prototype has a method called boom(), then [2, 4, 7].boom() is a valid method call.


concat() method of an array is used to merge the array with other arrays or values. It does not change existing array, instead it returns a new array.

const arr1 = [1, 3, 5];
const arr2 = [2, 4, 6];
const result = arr1.concat(arr2);
console.log(result); // [1, 3, 5, 2, 4, 6]

Above code does not alter arr1 and arr2

Concatenation order

concat() method does the concatenation in the supplied order of input.

const arr = [1];
const arg1 = [2];
const arg2 = [3];
const arg3 = [4];
const result = arr.concat(arg1, arg2, arg3);
console.log(result); // [1, 2, 3, 4]

Concatenate non-array value

It is possible to concatenate a non-array value with an array using concat().

const arr = [1, 3, 5];
const result = arr.concat(true);
console.log(result); // [1, 3, 5, true]

Shallow copy of an array

concat() creates a new array instance and returns it. So, if we call concat() method without any arguments, a shallow copy of the array is returned.

const arr = [1, 3, 5];
const copy = arr.concat();
console.log(copy == arr); // false
console.log(copy); // [1, 3, 5]

Above code logged false, because copy and arr is pointing to different array instances.

Nested arrays

concat() method does shallow copy. Any object elements of input arrays are copied by reference.

const arr1 = [["Apple"]];
const arr2 = [2, 4];
const result = arr1.concat(arr2);
console.log(result); // [["Apple"], 2, 4]

Here arr1[0] stores an object. So, result[0] is pointing to the same object. Any change in result[0] will affect arr1[0] and vice versa.

// ...
result[0][0] = "Banana";
console.log(arr1); [["Banana"]]

Also note that, when there is nested arrays, concat() does not flatten the array. It simply merges the input.


copyWithin() method shallow copies part of an array to another location in the same array. The method returns the updated array. The original array is not affected.

const arr = [2, 4, 6, 8];
const result = arr.copyWithin(0, 2, 3);
console.log(result); // [6, 4, 6, 8]


  1. target: zero based index to start pasting the sequence of elements
  2. start(Optional): zero-based index at which to start copying elements from
  3. end(Optional): Zero-based index at which to end copying elements from

With only target

When copyWithin() method is used by passing only the first argument, default value is taken for second and third argument.

For second argument, ie start, the default value is 0. For third argument, ie end, the default value is the length of the array.

const arr = ["A", "B", "C", "D", "E"];
const result = arr.copyWithin(2);
console.log(result); // ["A", "B", "A", "B", "C"]

With a negative target

If a negative value is given as target, the copying starts from the end of array. Eg: If the value of target is -2, then the copying starts from the second last element of the array.

const arr = ["A", "B", "C", "D", "E"];
const result1 = arr.copyWithin(-1);
console.log(result1); // ["A", "B", "C", "D", "A"]

const result2 = arr.copyWithin(-2);
console.log(result2); // ["A", "B", "C", "A", "B"]

When start is before target

When the start position is before target, the copy sequence is trimmed to maintain original array length.

const arr = ["A", "B", "C", "D", "E"];
const result = arr.copyWithin(2, 0);
console.log(result); // ["A", "B", "A", "B", "C"]

In the above code, we need to start copying from index 2. And we have a copy sequence starting from index 0. So, we might think, the output will be ["A", "B", "A", "B", "C", "D", "E"]. But copyWithin() will keep the array length intact. So it trims elements "D" and "E" to keep the original array length of 5.

With negative start

If the second argument for copyWithin() is a negative number, the copy sequence start position is counted from end.

const arr = ["A", "B", "C", "D", "E"];
const result = arr.copyWithin(2, -1);
console.log(result); // ["A", "B", "E", "D", "E"]

Here the last element, "E" is taken to paste in index 2. It is because we gave the second argument as -1.

Third argument, end

The third argument end, of copyWithin() is the zero based index at which to end copying elements from. copyWithin() copies upto, but not including end.

const arr = ["A", "B", "C", "D", "E"];
const result = arr.copyWithin(2, 1, 2);
console.log(result); // ["A", "B", "B", "D", "E"]

Observe that element at position 2, ie "C" is not copied.

With negative end

If end value is negative, the position is calculated from end.

const arr = ["A", "B", "C", "D", "E"];
const result = arr.copyWithin(2, 1, -2);
console.log(result); // ["A", "B", "B", "C", "E"]

end value of -2 means, two elements from the end of the array ie "D" and "E" is skipped. So elements "B" and "C" is copied.


entries() method returns a new Array Iterator object. The iterator contains the key-value pair of each elements in the array.

const arr = ["Apple", "Banana"];
const iterator = arr.entries();
console.log(; // [0, "Apple"]
console.log(; // [1, "Banana"]
console.log(; // undefined


every() method checks if all the elements in the array satisfies a particular condition. The method returns a Boolean value. It returns true if all the elements satisfy the condition.

const arr = [2, 4, 6];
const result = arr.every(ele => ele % 2 === 0);
console.log(result); // true

Above code checks if all the elements of arr are even numbers. Each element in the array goes through the callback function to every(). In any iteration, if the callback function returns false, every() returns false.

With an empty array

Irrespective of the condition, every() returns true for an empty array.

const arr = [];
const result = arr.every(ele => false);
console.log(result); // true

Why true for an empty array? Here we are talking about vacuous truth. If we say "All students should remain silent", the statement stands true even if there are no students.


The fill() method changes all elements in an array to a static value. It returns a new array.

const arr = [1, 3, 5, 7];
console.log(arr.fill(6)); // [6, 6, 6, 6]

Without any arguments

If we call fill() method without any arguments, all elements in the array are replaced by undefined.

const arr = [1, 3, 5, 7];
console.log(arr.fill()); // [undefined, undefined, undefined, undefined]

Start index

fill() method accepts a second argument which indicates start index. If we specify an array start index, only elements from that index is replaced.

const arr = [1, 3, 5, 7];
console.log(arr.fill(6, 2)); // [1, 3, 6, 6]

End index

fill() method accepts a third argument which indicates end index. Default value of end is the length of the array. That means, by default, all elements from start is replaced.

const arr = [1, 3, 5, 7];
console.log(arr.fill(6, 1, 3)); // [1, 6, 6, 7]

The end index is not inclusive. In the above code, we gave index 3. But, the elements at index 1 and 2 are replaced.


filter() method creates a new array with all elements that satisfies a particular condition. That condition is tested by passing a callback function to filter() method.

const arr = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6];
const result = arr.filter(ele => ele % 2 === 0);
console.log(result); [2, 4, 6]

Above code checks if each element is an even number. The callback function returns true if the number is even. Therefore, the final result contains an array of even numbers.

Callback function execution

The callback function is executed once for each element of the array.

const arr = [2, 4, 6, 8, 10];
const filteredArray = arr.filter(() => true);
console.log(filteredArray); // [2, 4, 6, 8, 10]

In the above code, the callback function always returns true. That is why the contents arr and filteredArray are same. The result also testifies that the callback function is called only once with each elements.

Callback function return value

filter() method takes an element to new array, if the callback function returns a truthy value. Truthy values are those values in JavaScript that can be converted to a boolean true when a boolean value is expected. As an example, all numbers except 0 are truthy values. 0 is considered as a falsy value.

const arr = [-2, -1, 0, 1, 2];
const filteredArray = arr.filter(ele => ele);
console.log(filteredArray); // [-2, -1, 1, 2];

Here, the callback function is simply returning the array element. When it comes to third element, ie 0, filter() method does not copy the element to the new array.

Callback with deleted or unallocated indices

const arr = [1,,,2];
const filteredArray = arr.filter(() => true);
console.log(filteredArray); // [1, 2]

In the above code, the filter() method callback always returns true. That means all elements of arr are copied to new array filteredArray. But, the length of arr is 4 and the length of filteredArray is 2. That is because, filter() method does not take deleted or unassigned elements. In our case the index 1 and 2 in arr is unassigned.

Placing empty commas are just for skipping the position. JavaScript is not filling the gap with undefined. What if arr contains explicitly assigned undefined values?

const arr = [1, undefined, undefined, 2];
const filteredArray = arr.filter(() => true);
console.log(filteredArray); // [1, undefined, undefined, 2]

In this case, undefined values are also copied, since that is explicitly assigned. From this example, we can understand that filter() method can be used to convert a sparse array to a condensed array.

Callback function arguments

The callback function to filter() method has 3 parameters.

  1. Value of current element
  2. Index of current element
  3. The original array
const arr = [2, 4, 6, 8];
const filteredArray = arr.filter((value, index, array) => {
  console.log(`Value at ${index} is ${value}`);
  array[index] = value * 2;

Here each callback function execution prints the value and index to console. In each loop, the value is doubled and stored to array. Outside the loop, we print the original array arr, to check if array is directly referenced to arr. Here is the output:

"Value at 0 is 2"
"Value at 1 is 4"
"Value at 2 is 6"
"Value at 3 is 8"
[4, 8, 12, 16]

As we can see, when we updated array argument, the original array arr is also updated. That means, arr and array points to the same array.

this argument

Other than the callback function, filter() method accepts a second argument. Whatever value passed as second argument is taken as the value of this inside callback function.

Here is a snippet without the second argument.

const arr = [2, 4, 6];
arr.filter(function() {

Above code prints window object to console 3 times. I purposefully used ES5 anonymous function syntax instead of arrow functions. If we use arrow function, the second argument of filter() method does not have any significance.

Now, we are going to explicitly define the value of this using the second argument.

const arr = [2, 4, 6];
arr.filter(function() {
}, {name: "Backbencher"});

Above code logs the passed object 3 times in the console.

[object Object] {
  name: "Backbencher"
[object Object] {
  name: "Backbencher"
[object Object] {
  name: "Backbencher"


find() method returns the first element that satisfies a given condition. The condition check is done by a callback function passed to find() method.

const arr = [2, 4, 6, 8];
const result = arr.find(ele => ele > 5);
console.log(result); // 6

In the array arr, 6 is the first element that is greater than 5. That is why result got the value 6.

The callback function passed to find() method visits the deleted elements also.


findIndex() returns the index of first element that satisfies a specific condition. The condition is setup using a callback function passed to findIndex() method.

const arr = [2, 4, 6, 8];
const index = arr.findIndex(ele => ele > 7);
console.log(index); // 3

In the array arr, 8 is the first element that is greater than 7. So the index of 8 is returned, that is 3.

flat() ES10

The flat() method of an array flattens the array and returns a new array.

const arr = [1, 2, ["A", "B"]];
console.log(arr.flat()); // [1, 2, "A", "B"]


flat() method accepts an optional parameter for depth. Depth specifies the extend to which the array can be flattened.

Here is an array with nested arrays and is 2 level deep.

const arr = [1, 2, ["A", "B", ["C", "D"]]];
console.log(arr.flat(1)); // [1, 2, "A", "B", ["C", "D"]]
console.log(arr.flat(2)); // [1, 2, "A", "B", "C", "D"]

Depth value of 1 did not flatten the innermost sub-array. Depth value of 2 flattened all levels.

Default depth

The default value of depth parameter is 1.

const arr = [1, 2, ["A", "B", ["C", "D"]]];
console.log(arr.flat()); // [1, 2, "A", "B", ["C", "D"]]

Complete flatten

Passing Infinity as depth in flat() method flattens an array completely, irrespective of its nesting.

const arr = ["A", ["B", ["C", ["D", ["E"]]]]];
console.log(arr.flat(Infinity)); // ["A", "B", "C", "D", "E"]

Array holes

flat() method skips array holes.

const arr = ["A", , "B"];
console.log(arr.flat()); // ["A", "B"]

flatMap() ES10

flatMap() is a combination of 2 array methods, map() and flat(). First, the mapping function is executed on the elements of the array. Then, flattening of the array is done of depth 1. flatMap() returns a new array.

const arr = [1, 2, [3, 4]];

// All number elements are made 0
const result = arr.flatMap(ele => {
  if(typeof ele === "number") {
    return ele * 0;
  return ele;

console.log(result); // [0, 0, 3, 4]

Here, the output of the map() method will be:

[0, 0, [3, 4]]

On the result, flat() method is applied to get:

[0, 0, 3, 4]